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Economical Post Column Derivatization Kit (EPOCOD)


Economical Post Column Derivatization Kit (EPOCOD) is an economical and compact unit placed between the HPLC column and the detector designed to facilitate the convenient mixing of the analyte containing eluent from the HPLC column with chemical derivatization agents. The kit includes a PTFE knitted reactor coil, a column jacket for temperature control and a “T” connector for convenient mixing of the analyte with post column chemical derivatization agents.

A standard EPOCOD comes with a knitted reactor coil 5 meters long x 0.5 mm ID in a 4” long column jacket (EP B-4-5-50).   Other combinations of knitted reactor coils and column jackets can be provided based on your specific analytical needs.  A water circulator is used in conjunction with the column jacket to control the temperature of the post column chemical derivatization reaction. 


EPOCOD Economical Post Column Derivatization Kit (EPOCOD)


EPOCOD Catalog Numbers and Description:

Catalog No. Knitted Reactor Coil Length (M) ID (mm) Nominal Void Volume (mL) Recommended Column Jacket
EP B-4-5-25 KRC 5-25
EP C-10-10-25 KRC 10-25
EP C-10-15-25 KRC 15-25
EP C-10-20-25 KRC 20-25
EP C-10-25-25 KRC 25-25
EP B-4-5-50* KRC 5-50
EP C-10-10-50 KRC 10-50
EP C-10-15-50 KRC 15-50
EP C-10-20-50 KRC 20-50
EP C-10-25-50 KRC 25-50
Economical Post Column Derivatization Kit (EPOCOD)

* Standard



  1. Degens, E.T. and Mopper, K. A New Chromatographic Sugar Analyzer with a Sensititity of 10-10 moles. ANAL. BIOCHEM. 45, 147-153 (1972)
  2. Felix, A.M. and Terkelsen, G. Total Fluorometric Amino Acid Analysis Using Fluorescamine. ARCH. BIOCHEM. BIOPHYS. 157, 177-182 (1973)
  3. Huber, J.F.K. and Muusze, R.G. Determination of the Psychotropic Drug Thioridozine and its Metabolites in Blood by Means of High Pressure Liquid Chromatography in Combination with Fluorometric Reaction Detection. J. CHROMATOG. SCI. 12, 779-787 (1974)
  4. Hercules, D.M., Neary, M.P., Seitz, R. A Chemiluminescence Detector for Transition Metals Separated by Ion Exchange. ANAL. LETTERS 7 (8,9) 583-590 (1974)
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  6. Laubock, R.G., Mays, D.L., Van Apeldoorn, R.J. High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Kanamycin. J. CHROMATOG. 120, 93-102 (1976)
  7. Schmidt, D.G., Singer, G.M., Singer, S.S. A Nitrosamide-Specific Detector for Use with High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography. J. CHROMATOG. 133, 59-66 (1977)
  8. Puls, J. and Sinner, M. Non-Corrosive Dye Reagent for Detection of Reducing Sugars in Borate Complex Ion Exchange Chromatography. J. CHROMATOG. 156, 197-204 (1978)
  9. Anhalt, J.P. and Brown, S.D. High-Performance Liquid-Chromatographic Assay of Aminoglycoside Antibiotics in Serum. CLIN. CHEM. 24(11), 1940-1947 (1978)
  10. Engback, F. and Magnussen, I. Determination of 5-Hydroxytryptophan in Plasma by High-Perfomance, Liquid Chromatography and Fluorometric Detection after Phthaldialdehyde Reaction. CLIN. CHEM. 24(2), 376-378 (1978)
  11. Regnier, F.E. and Schlabach, T.D. Techniques of Detecting Enzymes in High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. J. CHROMATOG. 158, 349-364 (1978)
  12. Chan, J.L. and Clark, C.R. Improved Detectability of Barbiturates in High Performance Liquid Chromatography by Post-Column Ionization. ANAL. CHEM. 50, 635-637 (1978)
  13. Krause, R. Further Characterization and Refinement of an HPLC Post-Column Fluorometric Labeling Technique for the Determination of Carbamate Insecticides. J. CHROMATOG. Sci., 16, 281-288 (1978)
  14. D'Amboise, M., Hanai, T., Noel, D. Systematic Liquid Chromatographic Separation of Poly-Oligo- and Monosaccharides. J. LIQ. CHROMATOG. 2(9), 1325-1336 (1979)
  15. Brooks, MA., D’Arconte, L., Lo Lee, T. High-Pressure Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Amoxicillin in Urine. J. PHARM. SCI. 68(4) 454-458 (1979)
  16. Carlavist, J. and Westerlund, D. Determination of Amoxicillin in Body Fluids by Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography Coupled with a Post-Column Derivatization Procedure. J. CHROMATOG. 164, 373-381 (1979)
  17. Krause, R.A. Resolution, Sensitivity and Selectivity of a High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Post-Column Fluorometric Labeling Technique for the Determination of Carbamate Insecticides. J. CHROMATOG. 185, 615-624 (1979)
  18. Crombez, E., De Moerloose, P., Van der Borsche, W., Van der Weken, G. Quantitative Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Cefatrizine in Serum and Urine by Fluoresence Detection After Post-Column Derivatization. J. CHROMATOG. 177, 323-332 (1979)
  19. Frei, R.W., and Scholten, A.H.MT. Reaction Detectors in HPLC. J. CHROMATOG. SCI. 17, 152-159 (1979)
  20. Myers, H.N. and Rindler, J.V. Determination of Spectinomycin by HPLC with Fluorometric Detection J. CHROMATOG. 176, 103-108 (1979)
  21. Kline, B.J.,Turner, V.A., Barr, W.H. Determination of Quinidine and Dihydroquinidine in Plasma by HPLC. ANAL. CHEM. 51(3), 449-451 (1979)
  22. Elchuk, S. and Cassidy, R.M. Separation of the Lanthanides on High-Efficiency Bonded Phases and Conventional Ion-Exchange Resins ANAL. CHEM. 51(9), 1434-1438 (1979)
  23. Copikova, J., Ouhrabkova, J., Vratny, P. Liquid Chromatography of Non-Reducing Oligosaccharides: A New Detection Principle. J. CHROMATOG. 191, 313-317 (1980)
  24. Honda, S., Kakehi. K., Matusda, Y., Shigetake, G., Takahashi, M. Fluorimetric Determination of Reducing Carbohydrates with 2-Cryano-acetomide and App!ication to Automated Analysis of Carbohydrates as Borate Complexes. ANAL CHEM. 52, 1079-1082 (1980)
  25. Kate, T. and Kinoshita, T. Fluorometric Detection and Determination of Carbohydrates by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Using Ethanolamine. ANAL. BIOCHEM. 106, 238-243 (1980)
  26. Yui, Y., Itokowa, Y., Kawai, C. A Rapid and Highly Sensitive Method for Determination of Picogram Levels of Norephinephrine and Epinephrine in Tissue by HPLC. ANAL. BIOCHEM. 108, 11-15 (1980)
  27. Schlaback, T.D., Fulton, J.A., Mockridge, P.B., Toren, Jr. E.C., Determination of Serum lsoenzyme Activity Profiles by HPLC. ANAL. CHEM. 52, 729-733 (1980)
  28. Mopper, K., Dawson, R., Liebezelt, G., Hansen, H.P. Borate Complex Ion Exchange Chromatography with Fluorimetric Detection for Determination of Saccharides. ANAL. CHEM. 52, 2018-2022 (1980)
  29. Cassidy, R.M. and Elchuk, S. Trace Enrichment Methods for the Determination of Metal Ions by High Performance Liquid Chromatography I and II. J. CHROMATOG. SCI. 18, 217-223 (1980), J. CHROMATOG. SCI. 19, 503-507 (1981)
  30. Niniura, N., Ishida, K., Kinoshita, T. Novel Post-Column Derivatization Method for the Fluorimetric Determination of Norepinephrine and Epinephrine. J. CHROMATOG. 221, 249-255 (1980)
  31. Imai, K. and Kobayashi, S. Determination of Fluorescent Compounds by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Chemiluminescence Detection. ANAL. CHEM. 52, 424-427 (1980)
  32. Boswick, W.D., Densmore, S.R., Denton, M.S. Liquid Chromatographic Separation and On-line Bioluminescence Detection of Creative Kinose lsoenzymes. CLIN. CHEM. 26(6), 712-717 (1980)
  33. Niemen, T.A. and Veazey, R.L. Chemiluminescence High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Detector Applied to Ascorbic Acid Determinations. J. CHROMATOG. 200, 153-162 (1980)
  34. Asai, K., Fujita, T., Ishida, Y. New Detection and Separation Method for Amino Acids by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. J. CHROMATOG. 204, 143-148 (1981)
  35. Brinkman, U.A. Th., Frei, R.W., Niessen, W.M.A., Werkhoven-Goewie, C.E. Liquid Chromatographic Detection for Organosulfur Compounds Based on Ligand Exchange Reaction. J. CHROMATOG. 203, 165-172 (1981)
  36. Nakamura, H. and Tamura, Z. Fluorometric Determination of Thiols by Liquid Chromatography with Post-Column Derivatization. ANAL. CHEM. 53, 2190-2193 (1981)
  37. Brinkman, U.A. Th., Frei, RW., Scholten, A.H.MT. Fluorescence Detection of Chloroanilines in Liquid Chromatography Using a Post-Column Reaction with Fluorescamine. J. CHROMATOG. 218, 3-13 (1981)
  38. Borys, K.B. and Karler, R. Post-Column Derivatization Procedure for the Colorimetric Analysis of Tissue Cannabinoids Separated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. J. CHROMATOG. 205, 303-323 (1981)
  39. Knapp, G., Lankmayr, E.P., Maichin, B. Catalytic Detection Principle for High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Determination of lodinated Thyronines in Blood Serum. J. CHROMATOG. 224, 239-248 (1981)
  40. Hirai, Y., Ohashi, S., Yoza, N. Flow Injection System as a Post-Column Reaction Detector for High Performance Liquid Chromatography of Phosphinate, Phosphonate and Orthophosphate. J. CHROMATOG. 206, 501-509 (1981)
  41. Kinoshita, T., Post-Column Derivatization of Guanidino Compounds in Plasma by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Using Ninhydrin. J. CHROMATOG. 226, 43-51 (1981)
  42. Bayne, W.F., Dye, D., East, T. High-Pressure Liquid Chromatographic Method with Post-Column, In-Line Hydrolysis and Fluorometric Detection for Indomethacin in Biological Fluids. J. PHARM. SCI. 70(4), 458-459 (1981)
  43. Field, L.R., Howard, W.N., Lee, S.H., Trager, W.F. High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Separation and Fluorescence Detection of Warfarin and its Metabolites by Post-Column Acid/Base Manipulation. ANAL. CHEM. 53, 467-471 (1981)
  44. Flood J.G. and McComb, R.B. Urinary Metanephrines as Measured by Liquid Chromatography with an On-line Post-Column Reaction Detector. GUN. CHEM. 27(7), 1268-1271 (1981)
  45. Honda, K., Imai, K., Koboyoshi, S., Skino, J. Application of High Performance Liquid Chromatography with a Chemiluminescence Detection System to Determine Catecholamines in Urine. ANAL. BIOCHEM. 112, 99-105 (1981)
  46. Reh, E. and Schwedt, G. Fluorimetric Reaction Detectors for High Performance Liquid Chromatography. CHROMATOCRAPHIC 14(4) 249-253(1981), 14(5), 317-320 (1981)
  47. Ahnoff, M., Grundevik, I., Arfwidsson, A., Fonselius, J., Persson, B. Derivatization with 4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofuran for Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Hydroxyproline in Collagen Hydrolysate. ANAL. CHEM. 53, 485-489 (1981)
  48. Kawase, J., Nakae, A., Tsuji, K. Determination of Zeolite-A in Detergent Powders as Acid-Soluble Alumina by HPLC with Post-Column Derivatization. ANAL. CHIMICA ACTA, 131, 213-222 (1981)
  49. Schrijuer, J., Speek, A.J., Schreurs, W.H.P., Semi-Automated Fluorometric Determination of PyridoxaI-5-Phosphate (Vitamin B6) in Whole Blood by HPLC. INTERNATIONAL J. FOR VITAMINS AND NUTRITION RESEARCH. 51, 216-222 (1981)
  50. Yui, Y. and Kawai, C. Comparison of the Sensitivity of Various Post-Column Methods for Catecholamine Analysis by HPLC. J. CHROMATOG. 206, 586-588 (1981)
  51. Miura, K., Nakamura, H., Tanaka, H. Tamura, Z. Fluorescence Detection of 8-Hydroxyquinoline and some of its Halogenated Derivatives using Post-Column Derivatization in HPLC. J. CHROMATOG. 210, 536-539 (1981)
  52. Cassidy, R.M. and Elchuk, S. Application of High Performance Liquid Chromatography to the Analysis of Nuclear Materials. J. OF LIQUID CHROMATOG. 4(3), 379-398 (1981)
  53. Hiheko, U., Kawase, J., Nafke, A., Tsiyi, K. High Performance Liquid Chromatography of Urea and Related Compounds with Post-Column Derivatization. J. CHROMATOG. 252, 209-216 (1982)
  54. Bedford, K.R., Nelson, P.E., Nolan, S.L. High Performance Liquid Chromatography Detection of Morphine by Fluorescence after Post-Column Derivatization. J. CHROMATOG. 234, 407-414 (1982)
  55. Honigberg, I.L., Lang, J.R., Stewart, J.T. Post-Column Air Segmentation Reaction for the Fluorometric Detection of Reserpine by Liquid Chromatography. J. CHROMATOG. 252, 288-292 (1982)
  56. Stewart, J.T. Post-Column Derivatization Methodology in HPLC. TRENDS IN ANAL. CHEM. 1(7), 170-174 (1982)
  57. Krull, I.S. and Lankmayr, E.P. Derivatization Reaction Detectors in HPLC. AMER. LAB., 18-32 (May 1982)
  58. Schrijver, J., Speck, A.J., Klosse, J.A., Van Rijn, H.J.M., Schreurs, W.H.P. A Reliable Semi-automated Method for the Determination of Total Thiamine in Whole Blood by the Thiochrome Method with HPLC. ANAL. CLINICAL BIOCHEM. 19, 52-56 (1982)
  59. Imanari, T., Tanabe, S., Toida, T. Simultaneous Determination of Cyanide and Thiocyanate by HPLC. CHEM. PHARM. BULL., 30(10) 3800-3802, (1982)
  60. Hojo. T., Nakamura, H., Tamura, Z. Fluorimetric Determination of Biogenic 5-Hydroxy- and 5-Methoxy-indoles by HPLC. Using Perchloric Acid as Post-Column Reagent. J. CHROMATOG. 247, 157-164 (1982)
  61. Honda, K., Sehino, J., Imai, K. Bis (2,4-dinitrophenol) oxalate as a Chemiluminescence Reagent in Determination of Fluorescent Compounds by Flow Injection Analysis ANAL. CHEM. 55, 940-943 (1983)
  62. LePage, J.N. and Rocha, E.M. Liquid Chromatography with Post-Column Reaction for Detection of Amines and Amino Acids. ANAL. CHEM. 55, 1360-1364 (1983)
  63. Watanabe, V. and lmai, K. Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Amino and Imino Acids and Thiols by Post-Column Derivatization with 4-Fluoro-7-nitro benzo-2,1,3-oxadiazole. ANAL. CHEM. 55, 1788-1791 (1983)
  64. Krause, R. Determination of Fluorescent Pesticides and Metabolites by Reverse Phase HPLC. J. CHROMATOG. 255, 497-510 (1983)
  65. Rogers, ME., Adlard, M.W., Sunders, G., Holt, G. HPLC Determination of B-Lactam Antibiotics, using Fluorescence Detection Following Post-Column Derivatization. J. CHROMATOG. 257, 91-100 (1983)
  66. Yu, T. and Arakawa HPLC Determination of Dialkyltin Homologues Using Fluorescence Detection. J. CHROMATOG. 258, 189-197 (1983)
  67. Kudoh, M., Matoh, I., Fudano, S. Determination of Tertiary Aliphatic Amines by HPLC. J. CHROMATOG. 261, 293-297 (1983)
  68. Cunico, R.L. and Schlabach, T. Comparison Ninhydrin and O-Phthalaldehyde Post-Column Detection Techniques for HPLC of Free Amino Acids J. CHROMATOG. 266, 461-469 (1983)
  69. Kawamoto, T., Okada, E., Fujita, T. Post-Column Derivatization of Vitamin B6 using 2-6-dibromoquinone-4-chlorimide J. CHROMATOG. 267, 414-419 (1983)
  70. Hunter, K. Determination of Coumarin Anticoagulant Rodinticide Residues in Animal Tissue by HPLC. 1. Fluorescence Detection using Post-Column Techniques. J. CHROMATOG. 270, 267-276 (1983)
  71. Honda, S., Takahashi, M., Araki, V., Kakehi, K. Post-Column Derivatization of Catecholamines with 2-Cyanoacetamide for Fluorimetric Monitoring in HPLC. J. CHROMATOG. 274, 45-52 (1983)
  72. Wielders J.P.M. and Mink, C.J.M. Quantitative Analysis of Total Thiamine in Human Blood, Milk and Cerebrospinal Fluid by Reverse-Phase Ion Pair HPLC. J. CHROMATOG. 277, 145-156 (1983)
  73. Tuinstra, L.G.M. and Haasnoot, W. Rapid Determination of Aflatoxin B1 in Dutch Feeding Stuffs by HPLC and Post-Column Derivatization J. CHROMATOG. 282, 457-462 (1983)
  74. Wells, C.E., Juenge, E.C., Furman, W.B. Simultaneous Assay of Thioridazine and its Major Metobolites in Plasma of Single Dosage Levels with a Novel Report of Two Ring Sulfoxides of Thioridazine J. PHARM. SCI. 72(6), 622-625 (1983)
  75. Miles, C.J., Moye, A., Scherer, S.J. A Simplified High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Residue Procedure for the Determination of Glyphosate Herbicide and (Aminomethyl) Phosphonic Acid in Fruits and Vegetables, Employing Post-Column Fluorogenic Labeling, J. AGR. FOOD CHEM. 31, 69-72 (1983)
  76. Tamura, Z. and Yazawa, K. Post-Column Oxidation of Reduced Biopterins for Fluorescence Detection. J. CHROMATOG. 254, 327-331 (1983)
  77. Birks, J.W. and Sigvardson, K.W. Peroxyoxalate Chemiluminescence Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Liquid Chromatography. ANAL. CHEM. 55, 432-435 (1983)
  78. Edlund, P.O., Westerland, D., Carlquist, J. Determination of Artesunate and Dihydroartemisinine in Plasma by Liquid Chromatography with Post-Column Derivatization and UV Detection. ACTA PHARM. SCI., 21, 223-234 (1984)
  79. Marsh, K.C., Sternson, L.A., Repta, A.J. Post-Column Reaction Detector for Platinum (II) Antineoplastic Agents. ANAL. CHEM. 56, 491-497 (1984)
  80. Hill, K.M., Hollowell, R.H., DalCortivo, L.A. Determination of N-Methylcarbamate Pesticides in Well Water by Liquid Chromatography with Post-Column Fluorescence Derivatization ANAL. CHEM. 56, 2465-2468 (1984)
  81. Vanderslice, J.T. and Higgs, D.J. HPLC Analysis with Fluorometric Detection of Vitamin C in Food Samples. J. CHROMATOG. SCI. 22, 485-489 (1984)
  82. Seki, T. and Yamaguchi, Y. Fluorimetric Determination of Catecholamines using Glycylglycine as the Reagent for Post-Column Derivatization. J. CHROMATOG. 287, 407-412 (1984)
  83. Assenza, S.F. and Brown, P.R. Ultraviolet and Fluorescence Characterization of Purines and Pyrimidines by Post-Column pH Manipulation. J. CHROMATOG. 289, 355-365 (1984)
  84. Wada, A., Bonoshita, M., Tanaka, Y., Hibi, K. A Study of a Reaction System for Organic Acid Analysis using a pH Indicator or Post-Column Reagent. J. CHROMATOG. 291, 111-118 (1984)
  85. Lam, S., Azumeya, H., Karmen, A. HPLC of Amino Acids in Urine and Cerebrospinal Fluid. J. CHROMATOG. 302, 28-29 (1984)
  86. Miyaguchi, K., Honda K., lmai, K. Sub-Picomol Chemiluminescence Detection of Dns-Amino Acids, Separated by HPLC with Gradient Elution. J. CHROMATOG. 303, 173-176 (1984)
  87. Mellbin, G. and Smith, B.E.F. Trace Determination of Aliphatic Amines using HPLC with Chemiluminescence Excitation and Photon Counting. J. CHROMATOG. 312, 203-210 (1984)
  88. Koziol, T., Grayeski, M.L., Weinberger, R. Approaches for the Determination of Trace Levels of Steroids in Blood Plasma by L.C. with Peroxyoxalate Chemiluminescence Detection. J. CHROMATOG. 317, 355-368, (1984)
  89. Dong, M.W. and DiCesare, J. Amino Acid Analysis by L.C. LIQ. CHROMATOG. 1(4), 222-228 (1984)
  90. Vrátný, P., Brinkman, U.A. Th., Frei, R.W. Comparative Study of Post-Column Reaction for the Detection of Saccharides in Liquid Chromotography. ANAL. CHEM. 57, 224-229 (1985)
  91. Dong, M.W. and Gant, J.R. High Speed Liquid Chromatographic Analysis of Amino Acids by Post-Column Sodium Hypochlorite-O-Phthalaldehyde Reaction. J. CHROMATOG. 327, 17-25 (1985)
  92. Kimura, M. and Itokawa, Y. Determination of Thiamine and its Phosphate Esters in Human and Rat Blood by HPLC with Post-Column Derivatization. J. CHROMATOG. 332, 181-188, (1985)
  93. Shi, R.J.Y., Gee, W.L., Williams, A.L., Benet, L.Z., Lin, E.T. Ion-Pair Liquid Chromotographic Analysis of Phenylpropanolamine in plasma and Urine by Post-Column Derivatization with O-Phthalaldehyde. J. LIQUID CHROMATOG. 8(8), 1489-1500 (1985)
  94. lmai, K. and Weinberger, R. Aryl Oxalate Chemiluminescence Detection for High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. TRAC. 4(7), 170-175 (1985)
  95. Thiel, P.G., Stockenstrom, S., Gathercole, P.S. Aflatoxin Analysis by Reverse Phase HPLC using Post-Column Derivatization for Enhancement of Fluorescence. J. LIQ. CHROMATOG. 9(1), 103-112 (1986)
  96. Effkemann, S., Pinkernell, U., Neumuller, R., Schwan, H., Engelhardt, H., Karst, U. Liquid Chromatographic Simultaneus Determination of Peroxycarboxylic Acids Using Postcolumn Derivatization, ANAL. CHEM. 70(18), 3857-3862 (1998)
  97. Koshiishi, I., Mamura, Y., Imanari, T., Simultaneous determination of vitamin C and its carbamylated derivatives by high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column derivatization. J. CHROMATOG. A. 806, 340-344 (1998)
  98. Edder, P., Cominoli, I., Corvi, C. Determination of streptomycin residues in food by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with post-column derivatization and fluorometric detection. J. CHROMATOG. A. 830, 345-351 (1999)
  99. Diehl, G. and Karst, U. Post-column oxidative derivatization for the liquid chromatographic determination of phenothiazines. J. CHROMATOG. A. 890, 281-287 (2000)
  100. Michels, J.J. Improved measurement of formaldehyde in water-soluble polymers by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with post-column reaction detection. J. CHROMATOG. A. 914, 123-129 (2001)
  101. Pakin, C., Bergaentzlé, M., Hubscher, V., Aoudé-Werner, D., Hasselmann, C. Fluorimetric determination of pantothenic acid in foods by liquid chromatography with post-column derivatization. J. CHROMATOG. A., 1035, 87-95 (2004)
  102. Maudens, K., Zhang, G-F., Lambert, W. Quantitative analysis of twelve sulfonamides in honey after acidic hydrolysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column derivatization and fluorescence detection. J. CHROMATOG. A. 1047, 85-92 (2004)

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